Excerpt from National Character in Action: Intelligence Factors in Foreign Relations
Nations differ in their national character as much as individuals differ in personal character. For success in international relations it is just as profitable, and indeed just as essential, to understand the character of the nation with which one is dealing as it is to understand the char acter of an individual in personal dealings. This maxim ap plies equally to friends, neutrals, and potential enemies.
In all aspects of international relations and especially in the formulation and implementation of foreign policy, an intimate understanding of the character of other na tions must always be one of the vital factors in the situa tion - usually one of the first factors. Such understanding becomes part of almost every phase of foreign policy plan ning and execution. It is an essential element of any inter national problems, whether the genesis of the problem be military, diplomatic, economic, political, psychological or cultural.